Cross-Cultural Analysis of Rites of Passage (2022)

Rites of passage are one of the vital parts that distinguish varying cultural backgrounds from one another. They constitute a form of socialization wherein individuals are able to identify themselves with a particular culture they belong to since each ritual or rite of passage is unique and symbolically diverse for different cultural backgrounds. Specifically, rites of passage are rituals, traditions, or practices that signify a transition or change in an individual’s life as he reaches a particular time, age, or stage. (Rasband) For instance, a rite of passage would include a ritual or an activity for individuals who are shifting from the age of adolescence to adulthood, or leaving behind the single life by bounding oneself to marriage, etc.

Each transitional stage of an individual’s life undergoes a ritualistic phase wherein an individual is made to welcome the changes and transformations that lie ahead. The remainder of this text will discuss a particular transitional stage of every human being’s life. In addition, the transitional stage will be related to two varied rites of passage from different cultures. The purpose of going over two different rites of passage is to determine the implications of undergoing such traditions in the social, emotional, and cognitive dimensions or development of an individual.Marriage is a momentous part of an individual’s life where one decides to live in union and harmony with another human being.

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Traditionally, a wedding is a process which marriage – or the union of one man and woman’s life – formal. However, in terms of social processes, marriage is a means of socialization wherein the foundations of society are rebuild by allowing the creation of a family which is technically the most basic unit of society. As a process of socialization, marriage fosters the development of relationships through intimacy and companionship, and as marriage allows the establishment of a family, it cultivates the transmission of culture from one generation to the next. (“What is Marriage”) Although marriage is a nonspecific event around the world, the variations in cultural practices, beliefs, traditions, and such establish the differences on rituals that lead to marriage.Marriage is a complex and formal process for the Chinese. For instance, in pre-Communist Dongyang, a small province in China, follows a distinct rituals and ceremonies for individuals who wanted to get married.

The marriage ritual is initiated by matching or arranging the union or establishment of relationship between two individuals. The parents of the man and the woman, as well as a go-between or a negotiator, are involved in the process of arranging the marriage of their offspring. Overall, the marriage ritual are handled or managed not by the two individuals who will be subjected to the ceremony, but are propelled by the individuals around them and the community in which they live. For instance, while the woman’s father led all the decisions as to who his daughter will marry, the actual marriage ceremony is arranged by the woman’s mother-in-law. However, the woman’s mother is in-charge of preparing the dowry in the form of clothes or dresses, make-up, linen, etc.

and entertaining guests who would attend the banquet and the marriage ceremony. (Cooper)The arrangement of marriage in Dongyang, as well as other rural areas in pre-Communist China for that matter, is based on set standards and guidelines from which the decision of conducting a wedding ceremony is closely founded on. Apparently, match-making or arranging matrimony between two individuals is based on their economic and social status. Moreover, arrangement of marriages is usually between individuals with close family or companionship ties. It is normal for people who belong in the same clan to marry one another, as long as their families agree, which they usually do due to their longing to engage members of their family with other people with the same social and economic status.

Sometimes, the arrangement of marriage is based on the closeness, in terms of friendship, of families to one another. Go-betweens or negotiators usually introduce two individuals with the same social and economic status, while their parents agreed on how the marriage ceremony will take place. (Cooper)Dongyang’s marriage ritual, as a rite of passage for individuals, is imposed by the family of an individual leaving one with no freedom to choose a mate and to explore other possibilities than getting married. The ritual or ceremony then is to leave or entrust one’s life to the decisions made by one’s parents or family and to accept marriage when, where, and with whom it will take place. Overall, marriage is following the rules, standards, or guidelines set by society highly based on the social or economic situation and the agreement between families who make the final decisions.

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The formal ritual or rite of passage is based on the decision of whether both parents agree to marry two individuals regardless of age, or any other considerations. Until this point, the life of an individual takes its turn allowing him or her to face the changes or transformations ushered by marriage.The marriage rituals of Roman Jews during the Renaissance present various similarities as well as differences with that of the Dongyang culture. At some point, the western and eastern representations of marriage rituals, as life transitions and rites of passage, are similar in the sense that both require the arrangement of the ceremony. Roman Jews need to come up with a contract from which the marriage becomes legalized. The difference, however, is that marriage for them is like a contract wherein the man is the purchaser of the woman, and the binding contract states the agreement of the woman to engage in the transaction making her the object to be purchased.

Like the Dongyang culture, the age of both individuals who want to get married, most especially the woman, does not matter. Minors are allowed to marry older men, as long as they are able to provide the woman’s family the required dowry. (Stow)The main difference between the rituals of the Dongyang culture and the Roman Jewish culture regarding marriage is that the latter requires more formal ceremonies or agreements such as the betrothal which occurs prior to the wedding, and the symbolically important exchange of rings during the actual wedding ceremony. In contrast to the Dongyang culture, attention is focused on the agreement and the payment of the dowry and not so much on the actual marriage ceremony between the two individuals. It was more of putting up a show in entertaining guests, and such. In the Roman Jewish culture, the marriage ceremony becomes the focus of the man and the woman’s family.

A betrothal refers to the actual establishment of the contents of the contract. Once a man decides to marry a person of the opposite sex, he approaches the woman’s family and the agreement of the parents of the woman depends solely on his ability to pay for the dowry. The contract during the betrothal is mostly in favor of the man, while the woman simply signs in agreement to their marriage. (Stow)The nature of the two cultures, when analyzed in the psychological perspective, influences the growth and development of individuals, especially if their ages are taken into consideration. Both cultures allow marriage even at a very young age.

Under the context of psychology, individuals follow a pattern of growth or development from which specific features or characteristics are identified for each age group or stage. According to the Psychosocial Theory of Development by Erik Erikson, adolescents are still in the stage of discovering their identities since they are caught up in between the stages of childhood and adulthood. In addition, this particular theory suggests that marriage should enter during the adulthood stage. (Van Wagner) With this in mind, we realized the implications of culture on the psychological development of individuals. Naturally, being immersed into the social situation of being married at an immature age and frame of mind changes the individual’s life tremendously.On one hand, the individual might feel confused about the situation since he or she is not prepared to face the responsibilities of a marriage partnership as well as raising a family.

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Individuals who are young still have a lot of things and experiences to explore in order to establish who they are as individuals. Symbolically speaking, getting married marks maturity and being welcomed to the world of adulthood and responsibility despite one’s age. However, getting married limits their capabilities to explore as much as they are bounded by the confines of the family life. Both individuals will be preoccupied to responsibilities such as working to satisfy their needs instead of going to school, and maintaining the upkeep of the house instead of going with friends, etc. This will influence how they grow psychologically, never being able to handle or resolves issues that come up during the adolescent stage. On the other hand, getting married at a young age might be beneficial to one’s personal growth of development as it pushes the individual to mature quickly and to look at things on a rational perspective.

In addition, the cultural rituals presented might affect the cognitive and socio-emotional perspectives and development of individuals. The socio-emotional perspective and development of individuals refer to the aforementioned discussion of Erikson’s Psychosocial theory. Going over the matter in depth, the theory proposes that individuals face sensitive periods wherein various issues are present within the environment of individuals that need to be resolved in order for them to move on to the next stage of their life, fostering growth and development. If they fail to resolve such issues, then they will never be able to grow according to their age. (Huitt) Relaying Erikson’s theory to marriage as a cultural trait, adolescents who jump ahead and engage in issues and situations that are supposed to be handled by adults leave them unable to resolve their personal issues of knowing themselves better and establishing their sense of selves.Lev Semanovich Vygotsky presents a cognitive take on the development of individuals.

According to Vygotsky, the cognitive aspect of individuals develops from social and cultural factors. Individuals learn from their social and cultural development, such that what they see from other people. Therefore, learning and developing one’s cognitive faculties are dependent on socialization and the kind of culture that one belongs to. (Thomas, 8) In the case of being able to marry at a young age due to the impositions of cultural practices, individuals are able to regard the process as customary, despite the unusualness and inappropriateness of the cultural practice. Through the socialization process and the cultural practice that is marrying despite one’s age, individuals are able to take on roles and responsibilities and learn how to handle them at a young age.

Therefore, their understanding of the world around them shifts to the adult perspective.

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What are some cultural rites of passage? ›

In North America today, typical rites of passage are baptisms, bar mitzvahs and confirmations, school graduation ceremonies, weddings, retirement parties, and funerals.

What are the four rites of passage? ›

Ceremonies that mark important transitional periods in a person's life, such as birth, puberty, marriage, having children, and death.

What are the rites of passage and why are they important? ›

A rite of passage is defined as a ritual or experience that marks a major milestone or change in a person's life, and they can be particularly important for children. Baptisms, graduations and proms are examples of modern rites of passage.

What are cultural rites? ›

A formal act or set of acts prescribed by ritual: ceremonial, ceremony, liturgy, observance, office, rite, service. 2. A conventional social gesture or act without intrinsic purpose: ceremony, form, formality.

What are the 3 phases of a rite of passage? ›

At their most basic, all rites of passage are characterized by three distinct phases: separation (leaving the familiar), transition (a time of testing, learning and growth), and return (incorporation and reintegration).

What rites of passage means? ›

Definition of rite of passage

: a ritual, event, or experience that marks or constitutes a major milestone or change in a person's life Rites of passage celebrate the social movement of individuals into and out of groups or into or out of statuses of critical importance to the individual and to the community.

What is the importance of rites of passage in African traditional religion? ›

Rites of passage in Africa as earlier stated are religious ceremonies that do not only mark the transition between an individual's life stages but also reinforce the dominant religious views and values of their culture.

What are the different types of rites? ›

Dr. Manu Ampim identifies five stages; rite to birth, rite to adulthood, rite to marriage, rite to eldership and rite to ancestorship.

What is the structure of a rite of passage? ›

The three-level structure of the rite of passage is symbolically related to the division into stages of the conflict connected with the change in role: the separation phase is linked to the sadness at leaving the previous role, the middle phase represents confusion and lack of belonging, and the final phase may be ...

Which of the following is characteristic of rites of passage? ›

Which of the following is characteristic of rites of passage? They are usually very casual everyday ceremonies. They are usually kept private because their function is to help only the individual who is the focus of the ceremony.

What plays and important role in rites of passage of African societies ?/? ›

In many African societies, art plays an important role in various rites of passage throughout the cycle of life. These rituals mark an individual's transition from one stage of life to another.

What's another word for rite of passage? ›

synonyms for rite of passage
  • baptism.
  • circumcision.
  • initiation.
  • initiation rite.
  • initiatory rite.
  • rite de passage.

Why cultural practices are important? ›

In addition to its intrinsic value, culture provides important social and economic benefits. With improved learning and health, increased tolerance, and opportunities to come together with others, culture enhances our quality of life and increases overall well-being for both individuals and communities.

What is an example of a rite? ›

An example of a rite is the Sacrament of Holy Matrimony. The prescribed or customary form for conducting a religious or other solemn ceremony. The rite of baptism. A prescribed form or particular system of ceremonial procedure, religious or otherwise; ritual.

What are examples of cultural practices? ›

  • Religious and spiritual practices.
  • Medical treatment practices.
  • Forms of artistic expression.
  • Dietary preferences and culinary practices.
  • Cultural institutions (see also Cultural Institutions Studies)
  • Natural resource management.
  • Housing and construction.
  • Childcare practices.

What stage of development includes rites of passage? ›

Although puberty rituals have been the focus of much of the discussion concerning rites of passage, the concept of rites of passage applies equally well to other ages and stages of life, including birth, marriage, and death.

Which of the following happens in the first phase of a rite of passage? ›

According to Arnold van Gennep, rites of passage have three phases: Separation, liminality, and incorporation. In the first phase, people withdraw from the group and begin moving from one place or status to another. In the third phase, they reenter society, having completed the rite.

What is liminality rite of passage? ›

In anthropology, liminality (from the Latin word līmen, meaning "a threshold") is the quality of ambiguity or disorientation that occurs in the middle stage of a rite of passage, when participants no longer hold their pre-ritual status but have not yet begun the transition to the status they will hold when the rite is ...

Who wrote rites of passage? ›

This book is a brute. It's also a canny fighter, employing the most devious feints before landing its punches. Indeed, if it weren't written by William Golding, it would be easy to mistake the first 50 or so pages of Rites of Passage for a straightforward social comedy.

What are the three stages in rites of passage quizlet? ›

2) Life cycle rituals - birth, initiations, marriage, death (all have the 3 stages of rites of passage - separation, liminality and reintegration.

What are the different type of rites? ›

Dr. Manu Ampim identifies five stages; rite to birth, rite to adulthood, rite to marriage, rite to eldership and rite to ancestorship.

What is an example of a rite? ›

An example of a rite is the Sacrament of Holy Matrimony. The prescribed or customary form for conducting a religious or other solemn ceremony. The rite of baptism. A prescribed form or particular system of ceremonial procedure, religious or otherwise; ritual.

Is baptism a rite of passage? ›

Anthropological definitions of rites of passage and family system theory are employed to make the case that infant baptism is itself a rite of passage, not merely for the infant being baptized and its parents, but for its whole extended family.

Is puberty a rite of passage? ›

Worldwide, puberty is recognized by various cultures and celebrated as a rite of passage into adulthood. The methodical drumbeat of these religious and social ceremonies foreshadows the rhythm of reproduction that, in many ways, marks the final stage of development.

It is our hope that this document may support affiliated organizations in creating their own working agreements, standards, and relations capable of addressing and caring for the needs that arise through their good work.. Working through and learning from the inter-cultural conflicts in our movement and building toward reparations and restoration is an integral part of creating the ceremonial processes that allow communities to be renewed by the fires of transformation crossed by their youth.. We commit to a practice of cultural humility and cultural self-awareness .. When we share teachings/artifacts from cultures other than our own, we do so with discernment, and provide context.. Both in our home communities and when entering into a new place, we strive to educate ourselves about the land, the historical and contemporary and political context of the peoples of that land, build relationships with the people of that place, and follow local protocols as best we can.. Many issues exist around the commodification of spiritual traditions and cultural symbols of indigenous and diasporic peoples.. Submitted by Youth Passageways Cross-Cultural Protocols Working Group:. What role might historical trauma play in a given dynamic or relationships between peoples?. Because many cultures have been subjected to deep violations of their right to exist, to practice their culture, or to have access to power/justice (economic, political, social, ecological), there will necessarily be a social justice aspect to cultural exchange.. We acknowledge in the beginning of encounters between cultures and individuals that mistakes will be made and there will almost certainly be conflict.. Seek community leaders and elders in a new community where one is working and seek their blessing to operate there.. Create space to be able to state what you are “tired of hearing” usually about yourself or your group; and ask for agreements from the whole (inter-cultural) group as to ways of moving away from that thinking.. Any research done upon “human subjects” and on Indigenous Peoples specifically (this would include their cultural practices), requires that the People be informed that the research is taking place, by what method, how it will be used prior to it being done.. We seek out right relationship with the peoples from whom the traditions originate, as well as seek within our own traditions and cultivate direct inspiration.

Rites of passage are ceremonial events that mark the passage from one social status to another.. Rumshpringa usually begins at the age of 14-16 and ends when the child chooses to be baptized within the Amish church or chooses to leave the community for good.. At the end of rumshpringa, they are left with two alternatives―one by which they are allowed to return to the community, are baptized, and have to follow the Ordnung and its laws, or choose to leave.. He also cuts the two threads, one of which he ties around the groom’s wrist, and the groom ties the other around the bride’s wrist.. Rites of passage are not mere formalities for the Hindus, but they are part of soul purification during different aspects of life.. It is believed that the child sees through the mother’s eyes, and thus, it is to show the child that he/she is welcome in the world.. The groom ties a ‘mangalsutra’, a holy thread, around the girl’s neck and fills her hair partition with red turmeric powder (kumkum/sindoor), which symbolizes that she is wed. Kanyadaanam is another vitally important aspect of any Hindu marriage.. The child is named in the presence of the whole family.. Traditionally, the child is named on or before the 7th day of his/her birth.. During the seven days after the child’s birth, this ceremony is held.. Unlike some religions, a child is considered as a Jew if the mother is a Jew.. Like Islam, this too should be done within the first seven days of the child’s birth.. The father is called to the Torah, and the girl child’s name is told to him.. A prayer is said for the health of girl child and her mother.. Elaborated when an infant becomes 4 months old or when a child enters adolescence

The Mescalero Girls’ Puberty Ceremony.. And, then, everything is done–for her that a people might live.. That a people will always live.. The girls’ mothers stand behind them holding burden baskets filled with food; their fathers and uncles stand to either side, inside the runway and directly in front of the holy lodge.. Each girl lays face down with her head to the east as her Godmother presses and "molds" her into a fine strong woman.. The fourth time, the Godmother feeds the girl, as she does so, she tells her, May you bring forth in this world strong male children so they will protect your people.". Each "river" is a multi vocal symbol with a fan of referents ranging from life values, ethical ideas, and social norms, to grossly physiological processes and phenomena.. Crossroads : The Quest for Contemporary Rites of Passage, Carus Publishing Company, Chicago, 1996.. A woman has to know patience, and a woman has to know how to stick it out, and a woman has to know all kinds of things that don’s just come to you like a gift.. There was always a reason for the things we hadda learn, and sometimes you’d been a woman for a long time before you found out for yourself what the reasons was....When you’d learned everythin’ you had to learn, and the time was right and you’d had your first bleedin’ time and been to the waitn’ house, there was a big party.. You were a woman.. When the chant ended the old woman would sing a special prayer, and take off all your clothes and you’d dive into the water and the dugout would go home...and you’d be out there in the water all by yourself and you had to swim back to the village.. And then, you were a woman...

Each Singer applies the yellow cattail pollen to the girl for whom he is singing: Again they sprinkle to the east, south, west, north, thence from the west to the east (from the crown of her head to her forehead), to the south (on her right shoulder), to the north (on her left shoulder), and from south to north (across her nose.). The hair is smoothed over the girl’s shoulders and back before molding begins: first the left shoulder, then the right; next the left and right sides of the back; the left hip and the right hip, the left then right thigh and calf, the left and right foot.. The girls are reenacting a beloved communal legend, the journey of White Painted Woman who walked to the west as an old woman only to return from the east as a young woman once again.. The fourth time, the Godmother feeds the girl, as she does so, she tells her, May you bring forth in this world strong male children so they will protect your people.". A woman has to know patience, and a woman has to know how to stick it out, and a woman has to know all kinds of things that don’s just come to you like a gift.. There was always a reason for the things we hadda learn, and sometimes you’d been a woman for a long time before you found out for yourself what the reasons was....When you’d learned everythin’ you had to learn, and the time was right and you’d had your first bleedin’ time and been to the waitn’ house, there was a big party.. The people would watch for you, and they’d light fires on the beach and when they finally say you they’d start to sing a victory song about how a girl went for a swim and a woman came home and you’d make it to the beach and your legs would feel they were made of rocks or somethin.’ You’d try to stand up and you’d shake all over, just plain wore out.

This essay will argue that Van Gennep’s stages of rites of passage do indeed cohere to many rituals, however, like Turner’s schemes (1995), these stages do little to explain to us the significance of ritual.. To make this argument this essay will focus on three rites of passage: French marriage ritual in Auvergne (Reed-Dahany: 1996), Yaka healing rituals in Zaire (Devisch: 1998, 1996) and refugee experience in Tanzania (Malikki: 1995).. The last example proves the most difficult for Van Gennep’s theory: because though it corresponds to his stages, nothing about the experience of refugees would correspond to the socially rigid categories Van Gennep claims are central to rites of passage.. Van Gennep (1909, Chapter I The Classification of Rites) attempts to demonstrate a there is a universal structure underlying all rites of passage.. Yet what Reed-Dahany notes is that the focus for the people involved in the ritual are the scatological reference implicit in the ritual: these elements of parody of bourgeois society that take place at the level of bodily praxis are left unexplained by Van Gennep’s scheme, in which any set of symbols is replaceable with another as long as they have the same social purpose.. If we develop Malikki’s understanding of the similarity between rites of passage and the refugee experience slightly, there is a parallel between the symbolic death and rebirth in the liminal stage of separation in a rite of passage, normally accompanied by ritual action that provides the unity of a shared painful experience, and the collective pain of that crossing into Tanzania in 1972.

i) According to Van Genneps (p. 192), the territorial passage can refer to passage from one social position to another or a change in social categories that involves a change of residence.. ii) Gennep (p.19) provides another kind of territorial rite of passage such as crossing from one village to another, a town to another or even a territory to a new territory.. (3) The Specific Three Stages of Rites of Passage as Van Gennep Sees Them. Third Stage: Reaggregation This is the final stage in the rite of passage where the individual undergoing the ritual is reconnected with the society in their new status.. The reaggregation stage portrays successful completion of the rite of passage and is usually accompanied by celebrations (Nicholas, 2012).


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