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  1. 1. Culture, Media, Language
  2. 2. Culture, Media, Language Working Papers in Cultural Studies, 197279 in association with the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies University of Birmingham
  3. 3. First published 1980 by the Academic Division of Unwin Hyman (Publishers) Ltd This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005. To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledges collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk. 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 1980 Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, University of Birmingham All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Culture, media, language. 1. Culture-Addresses, essays, lectures 1. Hall, Stuart b. 1932 301.208 HM101 ISBN 0-203-38118-1 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 0-203-38814-3 (Adobe eReader Format) ISBN 0-415-07906-3 (Print Edition)
  4. 4. Contents Preface vi Part One Introduction 1 Cultural Studies and the Centre: some problematics and problems Stuart Hall 2 2 Barrington Moore, Perry Anderson and English social development Richard Johnson 36 Part Two Ethnography 3 Introduction to ethnography at the Centre Roger Grimshaw Dorothy Hobson Paul Willis 61 4 Subcultural conflict and working-class community Phil Cohen 66 5 Notes on method Paul Willis 76 6 Green Farm Scout Camp Roger Grimshaw 84 7 Housewives and the mass media Dorothy Hobson 93 Part Three Media Studies 8 Introduction to Media Studies at the Centre Stuart Hall 104 9 The ideological dimension of media messages Marina Camargo Heck 110 10 Encoding/decoding Stuart Hall 117 , ,
  5. 5. 11 Television news and the Social Contract Ian Connell 128 12 Recent developments in theories of language and ideology: a critical note Stuart Hall 147 13 Texts, readers, subjects Dave Morley 154 Part Four Language 14 Introduction to Language Studies at the Centre Chris Weedon Andrew Tolson Frank Mort 167 15 Ideology and subjectivity John Ellis 177 16 Theories of language and subjectivity Chris Weedon Andrew Tolson Frank Mort 186 17 Sexuality for sale Janice Winship 210 Part Five English Studies 18 Literature/society: mapping the field The Literature and Society Group, 19723 219 19 Recent developments in English Studies at the Centre The English Studies Group, 19789 227 20 Selective guide to further reading and contacts 263 Notes and references 270 Index 298 v , , ,,
  6. 6. Preface The Centre for Cultural Studies is a post-graduate research centre at the University of Birmingham; its staff and students research and publish in the field of Cultural Studies.1 * It was established in 1964 under the Directorship of Richard Hoggart, then Professor of Modern English Literature. The aim was to inaugurate research in the area of contemporary culture and society: cultural forms, practices and institutions, their relation to society and social change. The principal inspiration behind its formation was the work which Richard Hoggart had undertaken in The Uses of Literacya pioneering study, published in the mid 1950s, offering an analysis of how recent developments were transforming and reshaping the cultures of the traditional working class.2 The Centre was intended to provide a base for the serious analysis of these questions, within the framework of higher education, and in a centre principally devoted to post- graduate research. In 1968 Richard Hoggart left to become an Assistant Director- General at Unesco, and, between 1968 and 1979, Stuart Hall was its Director. The Centre has greatly expanded since those early days. It now consists of three staff members, two research fellows working on specific funded projects, and over forty post-graduate research students. It has left the original home provided for it within the English Department, and has gained a reputation of its own in the field on the basis of an independent programme of intellectual work, research and publishing.3 More or less coterminous with its growththough by no means as the exclusive effect of its workprogrammes of study under the general rubric of Cultural Studies have been widely initiated in other sectors of education.4 This has led to the establishment of Cultural Studies degree courses and research programmes and to an expansion of the Cultural Studies element in a variety of courses and disciplines. The raison dtre of this volume of essays, which is drawn from the Centres work up to 1979, is not simply that it reflects the Centres work over these years, but that it is addressed to, and may help in, the on-going work of clarification of this emergent field of study. Cultural Studies is not, however, a discipline, but an area where different disciplines intersect in the study of the cultural aspects of society. The particular complex of disciplines involved, and the types of approach adopted, naturally differ from place to place. This volume, based as it is on the Birmingham Centres work, reflects only one particular tendency.
  7. 7. While aimed in general at supporting and underpinning these initiatives, there is no intention that this volume should stamp the field indelibly with the Centres particular concerns. We hope that the openness of our approach is reflected in the selections which follow, and that readers and users of the volume will bear this caveat in mind as they read. The selection of articles in this volume has been drawn from the first nine issues of the Centres journal, Working Papers in Cultural Studies (WPCS), from the Centres list of Stencilled Papers and from some more recent work.5 The early issues of the journal are now all out of print. The journal itself has been absorbed into the CCCS/Hutchinson series of books and now appears as the annual Special Number, along with other volumes.6 In the interim some of those earlier articles and issues, however, have become collectors items. In any event, the founding of the journal was an important moment in the Centres development, and its early numbers reflect many key themes and topics in the formative phase of Cultural Studies. So we responded positively to Hutchinsons proposal that a selection should be made available, drawing principally on those earlier sources of work, though including one or two pieces in each section more representative of our recent work. A number of things should therefore be said, by way of guidance to the reader, about how the book is organized. First, it does not reflect the full range of Centre work. For example, work on the position and oppression of women is the core of the second Special Number already published in our new series, Women Take Issue. This theme is therefore not given a section on its own here, though the impact of feminism is reflected in several of the more recent contributions published in this volume (see below). Work in the subcultures area did appear in WPCS 7/8, subsequently reprinted as Resistance Through Rituals. But this book appeared some three or four years ago. Moreover, there have been important developments in the work in this area, which deserve recognition. The ethnographic emphasis which marked it from the outset has been retained, but its focus has shifted, first, to more mainstream aspects of youth formation (Roger Grimshaws study of the Scout Movement, extracted here, is an example), and then to the more central institutions and relations (for example, recent work on the transition from school to work of working-class boys and girls; on young manual workers; and womens domestic and paid work). These have thoroughly transformed the earlier, more subcultural, concerns.7 These developments did seem to require some reference here (see the section on Ethnography). The growing base in Centre work of studies in such areas as education and educational institutions, the family, race and ethnicity, aspects of the state, together with the general redirection of Centre work towards more broadly historical concernsthe analysis of particular periods, the welfare state, work on cultural history and on the problems of history and theoryare not substantially represented in these pages. Some of these *Superior figures refer to the Notes and references on pages 277304. vii
  8. 8. topics are, however, scheduled as the main themes of Centre volumes now in preparation or shortly due to appear: for example, the collection of historical essays on Working Class Culture already published, and the volumes on Unpopular Education, History and Theory and Citizenship and the Welfare State, already planned or completed and due to be published in the Hutchinson series.8 These absences have three consequences which readers might bear in mind. First, this collection does not accurately reflect the present spread of Centre work. Second, it prioritizes a set of concerns which characterized the Centres most recent workmainly from 1972, when the journal was founded, up to about 1978. Third, it gives to Cultural Studies an emphasis on the analysis of texts and cultural forms, rather than on practices and institutions, which obscures more recent developments and which may therefore appear to tie the Centre too closely to its originating topics of interest. While in no way representing a rejection of these earlier concerns, it is important that this selection should not be taken as fixing Cultural Studies in an anachronistic mould. The shifts which have produced new kinds of work must be understood as just as essential to the definition of Cultural Studies as those represented here. The different phases of Centre work are more extensively marked and discussed in the I
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