EU sanctions against Russia explained (2022)

Infographic - EU sanctions in response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine

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Since Russia’s recognition of the non-government-controlled areas of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts in Ukraine on 21 February 2022 and the unprovoked and unjustified invasion of Ukraine on 24 February 2022, the EU has imposed a series of new sanctions against Russia.

They add to existing measures imposed on Russia since 2014 following the annexation of Crimea and the non-implementation of the Minsk agreements.

On this page you can find answers to the following questions:

  • what sanctions has the EU adopted so far, who is being sanctioned and what individual sanctions mean in practice?
  • what do the restrictive measures against Russian banks and the National Central Bank of Russia mean in practice?
  • what are the sanctions on aviation, road and maritime transport?
  • how is the EU’s trade with Russia being affected by the EU measures and what kind of import and export restrictions are in force?
  • are EU sanctions compliant with international law and are they coordinated with other partners?

What sanctions has the EU adopted so far?

Since February, the EU has imposed a number of packages of sanctions against Russia, including targeted restrictive measures (individual sanctions), economic sanctions and diplomatic measures.

The EU has also adopted sanctions against Belarus in response to its involvement in the invasion of Ukraine.

The aim of the economic sanctions is to impose severe consequences on Russia for its actions and to effectively thwart Russian abilities to continue the aggression.

The individual sanctions target people responsible for supporting, financing or implementing actions which undermine the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of Ukraine or who benefit from these actions.

(Video) EU has proposed new sanctions against Russia | DW News

  • EU restrictive measures against Russia over Ukraine - since 2014 (background information)
  • Timeline - EU restrictive measures against Russia over Ukraine (background information)
  • EU response to Russia's invasion of Ukraine (background information)

Who is being sanctioned?

In total, also taking into account earlier individual sanctions imposed after the annexation of Crimea in 2014, the EU has sanctioned 108 entities and 1212 individuals. The list includes:

EU sanctions against Russia explained (2)
  • Russia’s President, Vladimir Putin
  • Russia’s Minister for Foreign Affairs, Sergey Lavrov
  • oligarchs linked to the Kremlin, such as Roman Abramovich
  • 351 members of the Russian State Duma (the lower house of parliament) who voted in favour of the recognition of Donetsk and Luhansk on 15 February 2022
  • members of the National Security Council
  • local politicians such as the mayor of Moscow
  • high-ranking officials and military personnel
  • prominent businesspeople (i.e. people active in the Russian steel industry and others who provide financial services, military products and technology to the Russian state)
  • propagandists and disinformation actors
  • individuals responsible for the atrocities committed in Bucha and Mariupol
  • individuals involved the recruitment of Syrian mercenaries to fight in Ukraine
  • selected family members of some of the abovementioned individuals
  • List of persons and entities under EU restrictive measures over the territorial integrity of Ukraine (EU official journal)

What do sanctions on individuals mean in practice?

Sanctions on individuals consist of travel bans and asset freezes. Travel bans prevent listed individuals from entering or transiting through EU territory, by either land, air or sea.

Asset freezes mean that all accounts belonging to the listed persons and entities in EU banks are frozen. It is also prohibited to make any funds or assets directly or indirectly available to them.

This ensures that their money can no longer be used to support the Russian regime nor can they try to find a safe haven in the EU.

How is the EU’s trade with Russia being sanctioned?

As part of the economic sanctions, the EU has imposed a number of import and export restrictions on Russia. This means that European entities cannot sell certain products to Russia (export restrictions) and that Russian entities are not allowed to sell certain products to the EU (import restrictions).

The list of banned products is designed to maximise the negative impact of the sanctions for the Russian economy while limiting the consequences for EU businesses and citizens. The export and import restrictions exclude products primarily intended for consumption and products related to health, pharma, food and agriculture, in order not to harm the Russian population.

The bans are implemented by the EU’s customs authorities.

Moreover, the EU, in collaboration with other like-minded partners, has adopted a statement reserving the right to stop treating Russia as a most-favoured-nation within the WTO framework. The EU has decided to act on this not through an increase in import tariffs, but through a set of restrictive measures that include bans on the import or export of certain goods. The EU and its partners have also suspended any work related to the accession of Belarus to the WTO.

What goods cannot be exported to Russia from the EU?

The list of sanctioned products includes among others:

  • cutting-edge technology (e.g. quantum computers and advanced semiconductors, high-end electronics and software)
  • certain types of machinery and transportation equipment
  • specific goods and technology needed for oil refining
  • energy industry equipment, technology and services
  • aviation and space industry goods and technology (e.g. aircraft, spare parts or any kind of equipment for planes and helicopters, jet fuel)
  • maritime navigation goods and radio communication technology
  • a number of dual-use goods (goods that could be used for both civil and military purposes), such as drones and software for drones or encryption devices
  • luxury goods (e.g. luxury cars, watches, jewellery)

What goods cannot be imported from Russia to the EU?

The list of sanctioned products includes among others:

  • crude oil and refined petroleum products, with limited exceptions (with phase out of 6 to 8 months)
  • coal and other solid fossil fuels (as there is a wind-down period for existing contracts, this sanction will apply as from August 2022)
  • gold, including jewellery
  • steel and iron
  • wood, cement and certain fertilisers
  • seafood and liquor (e.g. caviar, vodka)

What does the oil ban mean in practice?

EU sanctions against Russia explained (3)

In June 2022, the Council adopted a sixth package of sanctions that, among others, prohibits the purchase, import or transfer of crude oil and certain petroleum products from Russia to the EU. The restrictions will apply gradually: within six months for crude oil and within eight months for other refined petroleum products.

(Video) How much would the proposed EU sanctions hurt Russia? | DW News

A temporary exception is foreseen for imports of crude oil by pipeline into those EU member states that, due to their geographic situation, suffer from a specific dependence on Russian supplies and have no viable alternative options.

Moreover, Bulgaria and Croatia specifically will benefit from temporary derogations concerning the import of Russian seaborne crude oil and vacuum gas oil respectively.

As the majority of the Russian oil delivered to the EU is seaborne, these restrictions will cover nearly 90% of Russian oil imports to Europe by the end of the year. This will significantly reduce Russia’s trade profits.

What are the sanctions on road transport?

The EU has prohibited Russian and Belarusian road transport operators from entering the EU, including for goods in transit.

This sanction aims to restrict Russian industry’s capacity to acquire key goods and to disrupt road trade both to and from Russia. However, EU countries can grant derogations for:

  • the transport of energy
  • the transport of pharmaceutical, medical, agricultural and food products
  • humanitarian aid purposes
  • transport related to the functioning of diplomatic and consular representations of the EU and its countries in Russia, or of international organisations in Russia which enjoy immunities in accordance with international law
  • the transfer or export to Russia of cultural goods on loan in the context of formal cultural cooperation with Russia

The ban does not affect mail services and goods in transit between Kaliningrad Oblast and Russia.

What do sanctions in the aviation sector mean?

EU sanctions against Russia explained (4)

In February 2022, the EU refused access to EU airports for Russian carriers of all kinds and banned them from overflying EU airspace. This means that airplanes registered in Russia or elsewhere and leased or rented to a Russian citizen or entity cannot land at any EU airports and cannot fly over EU countries. Private aircraft, e.g. private business jets, are included in the ban.

In addition, the EU banned the export to Russia of goods and technology in the aviation and space industry.

Insurance services, maintenance services and technical assistance related to these goods and technology are also prohibited. The United States, Canada and the United Kingdom imposed similar restrictions.

This means that Russian airlines cannot buy any aircraft, spare parts or equipment for their fleet and cannot perform the necessary repairs or technical inspections. As three-quarters of Russia’s current commercial air fleet were produced in the EU, the US or Canada, over time the ban is likely to result in the grounding of a significant proportion of the Russian civil aviation fleet, even for domestic flights.

  • EU restrictive measures against Russia (European Union Aviation Safety Agency)

What are the sanctions on maritime transport?

The EU has closed its ports to Russia's entire merchant fleet of over 2 800 vessels. However, the measure does not affect vessels carrying:

  • energy
  • pharmaceutical, medical, agricultural and food products
  • humanitarian aid
  • nuclear fuel and other goods necessary for the functioning of civil nuclear capabilities
  • coal (until 10 August 2022, after which imports of coal into the EU will be banned)

The measure also does not affect vessels in need of assistance seeking a place of refuge, or vessels making an emergency port call for reasons of maritime safety or saving life at sea.

(Video) Cold War 2.0? The Global Economic Impact of Sanctions Against Russia | WSJ

The ban will also apply to vessels that try to evade the sanctions by changing their Russian flag or registration to that of another state. Port authorities can identify an attempt to reflag or change registration by checking a vessel’s IMO number (the unique identification number assigned on behalf of the International Maritime Organization).

What does the SWIFT ban mean for Russian and Belarusian banks?

The ban prevents ten Russian and four Belarusian banks from making or receiving international payments using SWIFT.

EU sanctions against Russia explained (5)

SWIFT is a messaging service that substantially facilitates information exchange between banks and other financial institutions. SWIFT connects more than 11 000 entities worldwide.

As a result, these banks can neither get foreign currency (as a transfer of foreign currencies between two banks is generally processed as a transfer abroad involving a foreign intermediary bank) nor transfer assets abroad. This has negative consequences for the Russian and Belarusian economies.

Technically, banks could carry out international transactions without SWIFT, but it is expensive, complex and requires mutual trust between financial institutions. It brings payments back to the times when telephone and fax were used to confirm each transaction.

What do the sanctions against the National Central Bank of Russia mean in practice?

The European Union has prohibited all transactions with the National Central Bank of Russia related to the management of the Russian Central Bank’s reserves and assets. As a result of the central bank asset freeze, the central bank can no longer access the assets it has stored in central banks and private institutions in the EU.

In February 2022, Russia’s international reserves accounted for $643 billion (€579 billion). Among other purposes, having reserves in foreign currencies helps keep the exchange rate of a country’s own currency stable.

Due to the ban on transactions from the EU and other countries, it is estimated that more than half of Russian reserves are frozen. The ban was also imposed by other countries (such as the US, Canada and the UK) which also store a share of Russia’s foreign reserves.

Consequently, Russia cannot use this cushion of foreign assets to provide funds to its banks and thus limit the effects of other sanctions. Even the gold reserves stored in Russia now appear to be more difficult to sell due to international sanctions affecting Russian entities.

The EU has also prohibited the sale, supply, transfer and export of euro-denominated banknotes to Russia. The aim is to limit access to cash in euro by the Russian government, its Central Bank and natural or legal persons in Russia with a view to preventing the circumvention of sanctions.

Similar sanctions apply to Belarus.

Why has the EU suspended the broadcasting of five Russian outlets?

The Russian Federation has engaged in a systematic, international campaign of disinformation, information manipulation and distortion of facts in order to enhance its strategy of destabilising both its neighbouring countries and the EU and its member states.

(Video) The sanctions on Russia, explained

EU sanctions against Russia explained (6)

To counteract this, the EU has suspended the broadcasting activities in the EU of five Russian state-owned outlets:

  • Sputnik
  • Russia Today
  • Rossiya RTR/RTR Planeta
  • Rossiya 24/Russia 24
  • TV Centre International

Russia uses all these state-owned outlets to intentionally spread propaganda and conduct disinformation campaigns, including about its military aggression against Ukraine.

The restrictions against Sputnik and Russia Today (together with their subsidiaries, such as RT English, RT Germany, RT France and RT Spanish) have been in place since 2 March 2022. The restrictions on the other three entities have been in place as of 4 June 2022.

They cover all means of transmission and distribution in or directed at the EU member states, including cable, satellite, Internet Protocol TV, platforms, websites and apps.

In line with the Charter of Fundamental Rights, these measures will not prevent those media outlets and their staff from carrying out activities in the EU other than broadcasting, e.g. research and interviews.

Is the EU coordinating the sanctions with other partners?

Sanctions are more effective if a broad range of international partners are involved. The EU has worked closely over the last few weeks with like-minded partners such as the United States in order to coordinate sanctions.

The EU is working with the World Bank Group, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and other international partners to prevent Russia from obtaining financing from such institutions.

To coordinate this international effort, the newly formed Russian Elites, Proxies, and Oligarchs (REPO) Task Force allows the EU to cooperate with the G7 countries – Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States – as well as with Australia, to ensure sanctions are implemented.

Although the EU works closely with many partners, each of these non-EU countries decides unilaterally which sanctions it will impose.

Do EU sanctions fall under international law?

Yes. All EU sanctions are fully compliant with obligations under international law, whilst respecting human rights and fundamental freedoms.

Once political agreement is reached among EU member states, the necessary legal acts are prepared by the European External Action Service and/or the European Commission and submitted to the Council for adoption.

Council regulations and decisions, as legal acts of general application, are binding on any person or entity under EU jurisdiction. This means any person or entity within the EU, any EU national in any location, and all companies and organisations incorporated under the law of an EU member state.

(Video) "These are Putin's sanctions": Understanding the economic sanctions against Russia

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Why did EU impose sanctions on Russia? ›

The EU imposed its sanctions "in the absence of de-escalatory steps by the Russian Federation" in order to bring an end to the violence in eastern Ukraine.

Are there any sanctions on Russia? ›

As one part of this effort, the United States is announcing devastating economic measures to ban new investment in Russia, and impose the most severe financial sanctions on Russia's largest bank and several of its most critical state-owned enterprises and on Russian government officials and their family members.

Why Crimea is sanctioned? ›

Why are sanctions imposed? Australia imposes autonomous sanctions in relation to Crimea and Sevastopol in response to the Russian threat to the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine. They were first imposed in 2014 and extended in 2015.

What are sanctions on a country? ›

Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted self-governing state, group, or individual. Economic sanctions are not necessarily imposed because of economic circumstances—they may also be imposed for a variety of political, military, and social issues.

What is the purpose of sanctions? ›

International sanctions are political and economic decisions that are part of diplomatic efforts by countries, multilateral or regional organizations against states or organizations either to protect national security interests, or to protect international law, and defend against threats to international peace and ...

What companies have pulled out of Russia? ›

The Big Four accounting firms — Deloitte, EY, KPMG and PwC — are pulling out of the country.

Is Russia part of g20? ›

As of 2022, there are 20 members in the group: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, South Korea, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union.

Can Russian citizens leave Russia? ›

For nearly 30 years, Russian citizens have had the freedom to travel internationally without government permission, a departure from strict Soviet-era policies lifted in the early 1990s.

Why does the US have sanctions on Russia? ›

The USG has escalated sanctions on Russia since 2014 in response to Russia's incursions into and invasion of Ukraine, cyber-attacks, malign influence, use of chemical weapons, and election meddling.

Does Canada have sanctions against Russia? ›

On March 23, 2022, Canada further amended the Special Economic Measures (Russia) Regulations to add 160 members of the Russian Federation Council, who are now subject to a broad dealings ban. With these names, all members of the Russian Federation Council are now sanctioned by Canada.

Does Australia have sanctions against Russia? ›

The Australian Government has imposed targeted financial sanctions and travel bans on a further 110 individuals in response to Russia's illegal war against Ukraine, made up of senior Ukrainian separatists and Russian members of parliament.

Does Ukraine have sanctions? ›

Executive Order 13660 , signed on March 6, 2014, authorizes sanctions on individuals and entities responsible for violating the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine, or for stealing the assets of the Ukrainian people.

What are the 6 sanctioned countries? ›

  • Sanctioned Destinations. North Korea. Syria. Russia-Belarus.
  • U.S.-EU TTC.

What is a sanction example? ›

To sanction is for a recognized authority to give approval to something. An example of sanction is when a parent lets his child leave school.

What is the difference between a positive and a negative sanction? ›

Negative sanctions are actual or threatened punishments, whereas positive sanctions are actual or promised rewards.

Is Russia in the G7? ›

Annual summit

The first G8 summit was held in 1997 after Russia formally joined the G7 group, and the last one was held in 2013.

Is China in the G8? ›

The Group of Eight + Five (G8+5) was an international group that consisted of the leaders of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States), plus the heads of government of the five leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, ...

Who are in G7? ›

The G7 is an informal grouping of seven of the world's advanced economies: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.

Can I buy land in Russia? ›

According to Russian law, foreigners are usually allowed to purchase or rent property in Russia, but certain exceptions apply. Also, in order to be allowed to buy a property, the foreign citizen must hold a valid Russian resident permit.

Can US citizens go to Russia? ›

To enter Russia for any purpose, a U.S. citizen must possess a valid U.S. passport and a bona fide visa issued by a Russian Embassy or Consulate. It is impossible to obtain an entry visa upon arrival, so travelers must apply for their visas well in advance.

Can u just leave Russia? ›

Can I still leave Russia by plane? There are no longer any direct flights from Russia to most countries in Europe. You can still reach the EU from Moscow and St Petersburg via countries that have not closed their airspace, such as the United Arab Emirates.

What banks are under sanctions in Russia? ›

The 18 entities designated under the latest round of sanctions are: Alfa-Bank, Bank Rossiya, Bank Otkritie, Black Sea Bank for Development and Reconstruction, Central Bank of the Russian Federation, Credit Bank of Moscow, Gazprombank, GenBank, Industrial Savings Bank, Novikombank, Russia Agricultural Bank, Russian ...

How long does a sanction last? ›

Low-level sanction
Number of low-level sanctionsDuration
First time7 days (1 week)
Second time14 days (2 weeks)
Third time28 days (4 weeks)
Apr 12, 2022

What US sanctions are on Russia 2022? ›

Today President Biden is issuing E.O. of April 6, 2022, “Prohibiting New Investment in and Certain Services to the Russian Federation in Response to Continued Russian Federation Aggression,” to ban all new investment in the Russian Federation by U.S. persons, wherever located, as well as the exportation, reexportation, ...

What does Canada sell to Russia? ›

Trade In April 2022, the top exports of Canada to Russia were Vaccines, blood, antisera, toxins and cultures (C$1.01M), Eggs (C$753k), Valves (C$457k), Laboratory Reagents (C$422k), and Other Inedible Animal Products (C$183k).

When did sanctions start in Russia 2022? ›

On 28 February 2022, the Central Bank of Russia was blocked from accessing more than $400 billion in foreign-exchange reserves held abroad and the EU imposed sanctions on several Russian oligarchs and politicians.

Is Ukraine part of NATO? ›

Relations between Ukraine and NATO were formally established in 1992, when Ukraine joined the North Atlantic Cooperation Council after regaining its independence, later renamed the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council.

What does Australia sell to Russia? ›

In agriculture, the two nations compete in the wheat and barley markets. Russia (and Ukraine) are bigger in oilseeds, while Australia is much larger in beef, wool, dairy products and wine.
Australia (US$ billion)Russia (US$ billion)
Complex manufactures51.858.6
Total exports314.3398.4
10 more rows
Apr 22, 2022

What do we export to Russia? ›

U.S. total exports of agricultural products to Russia totaled $193 million in 2019. Leading domestic export categories include: prepared food ($42 million), planting seeds ($20 million), tobacco ($15 million), feeds & fodders not elsewhere specified or indicated ($11 million), and live animals ($9 million).

Can Russian come to Australia? ›

Open. Australia is open for travel. Most visitors from Russia can travel to Australia without restrictions.

Is Russia an OFAC sanctioned country? ›

OFAC manages the United States government's sanctions and embargo programs, as well as the Specially Designated Nationals (SDNs) and Blocked Persons lists.
List of Comprehensively Sanctioned Countries.
North KoreaRussia
SyriaThe following regions of Ukraine: Crimea, Donetsk and Luhansk

Does Canada recognize Crimea? ›

Canada has placed sanctions on the Russian-occupied Crimea region of Ukraine and on Ukrainian individuals and entities related to Russia's illegal occupation and attempted annexation of Crimea and the ongoing Russian occupation in parts of eastern Ukraine.

What are UK sanctions list? ›

The UK government publishes the UK Sanctions List, which provides details of those designated under regulations made under the Sanctions Act. The list also details which sanctions measures apply to these persons or ships, and in the case of UK designations, provides a statement of reasons for the designation.

Who do UK sanctions apply to? ›

All individuals and legal entities who are within or undertake activities within the UK's territory must comply with UK financial sanctions that are in force.

What are the sanctioned countries 2020? ›

Combined, the Treasury Department, the Commerce Department and the State Department list embargoes against 20 countries or territories:
  • Afghanistan.
  • Belarus.
  • Bolivia.
  • Cambodia.
  • China.
  • Crimea.
  • Cuba.
  • Eritrea.

Has the US ever been sanctioned? ›

The United States of America had multiple sanctions imposed on them throughout history. Most recently, United States President Donald Trump has introduced economic sanctions in 2018 on multiple trade partners, including The People's Republic of China, Canada, the European Union and Mexico.

What is generally true about sanctions? ›

Sanctions are mechanisms of social control. As opposed to forms of internal control, like cultural norms and values, sociologists consider sanctions a form of external control. Sanctions can either be positive (rewards) or negative (punishment), and can arise from either formal or informal control.

What happens when someone is sanctioned? ›

Sanctions, in law and legal definition, are penalties or other means of enforcement used to provide incentives for obedience with the law, or with rules and regulations. Criminal sanctions can take the form of serious punishment, such as corporal or capital punishment, incarceration, or severe fines.

What is the sanction behind laws? ›

a punishment given when someone does not obey a rule or a law: criminal/legal sanctions.

What is an example of negative sanction? ›

Negative sanctions can include embarrassment, shame, ridicule, sarcasm, criticism, disapproval, social discrimination, and exclusion as well as more formal sanctions such as penalties and fines.

What are some examples of positive sanctions? ›

Positive sanctions include awards, certificates, honors, medals, orders, praise, titles, and trophies. Sociologists study four primary types of sanctions: formal. informal.

What is an example of a negative formal sanction? ›

-Negative formal sanctions include low grades, suspension from school, termination from a job, fines, and imprisonment. -Graduation certificates, pay raises, promotions, awards, and medals are examples of positive formal sanctions.

Why does the US have sanctions on Russia? ›

The USG has escalated sanctions on Russia since 2014 in response to Russia's incursions into and invasion of Ukraine, cyber-attacks, malign influence, use of chemical weapons, and election meddling.

Is Russia part of EU? ›

The EU countries are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Republic of Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden.

What does it mean to sanction someone? ›

Sanction has two main senses that are almost opposites: it can refer to authorizing or approving something, or to penalizing or disciplining someone or something. Sanction can be used as a verb (meaning to authorize or to penalize) or a noun (meaning approval or penalty). It is most commonly used in official contexts.

Is Swift available in Russia? ›

Immediately following the invasion, the Ukrainian Government requested that Russia be fully banned from SWIFT. That has been called the “nuclear” option, as it would essentially sever the country's ties to the rest of the world—and leave the global markets reeling.

What banks are under sanctions in Russia? ›

The 18 entities designated under the latest round of sanctions are: Alfa-Bank, Bank Rossiya, Bank Otkritie, Black Sea Bank for Development and Reconstruction, Central Bank of the Russian Federation, Credit Bank of Moscow, Gazprombank, GenBank, Industrial Savings Bank, Novikombank, Russia Agricultural Bank, Russian ...

Is Russia part of g20? ›

As of 2022, there are 20 members in the group: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, South Korea, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union.

How long does a sanction last? ›

Low-level sanction
Number of low-level sanctionsDuration
First time7 days (1 week)
Second time14 days (2 weeks)
Third time28 days (4 weeks)
Apr 12, 2022

What percentage of Europe is Russia? ›

Russia spans the northern part of the Eurasian continent; 77% of Russia's area is in Asia, the western 23% of the country is located in Europe. European Russia occupies almost 40% of the total area of Europe.

Why is Russia not in NATO? ›

In March 2015, Russia, citing NATO's de facto breach of the 1990 Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, said that the suspension of its participation in it, announced in 2007, was now "complete" through halting its participation in the consulting group on the Treaty.

Why is there a bit of Russia in Europe? ›

The port city of Baltiysk is Russia's only port on the Baltic Sea that remains ice-free in winter. Kaliningrad Oblast had a population of roughly 1 million in the Russian Census of 2010.
Kaliningrad Oblast
Coordinates: 54°48′N 21°25′E
Federal districtNorthwestern
Economic regionKaliningrad
26 more rows

What is sanctions in simple words? ›

1 : a punitive or coercive measure or action that results from failure to comply with a law, rule, or order a sanction for contempt. 2 : explicit or official approval.

What happens if a person is sanctioned? ›

Sanctions, in law and legal definition, are penalties or other means of enforcement used to provide incentives for obedience with the law, or with rules and regulations. Criminal sanctions can take the form of serious punishment, such as corporal or capital punishment, incarceration, or severe fines.

What happens when you are sanctioned? ›

A sanction is when your benefits are cut off. Sanctions can also be imposed for reasons that are not related to your work activity. HRA often calls sanctions “failure to report” (FTR) or “failure to comply” (FTC).

How did Russia get so much land? ›

How Did Russia Get So Big? - YouTube

How many banks did Russia Remove from SWIFT? ›

In March, seven Russian banks were removed from Swift including Bank Otkritie, Novikombank, Promsvyazbank, Bank Rossiya, Sovcombank, Vnesheconombank (VEB) and VTB Bank.

What is Russia's alternative to SWIFT? ›

SPFS (Russian: Система передачи финансовых сообщений (СПФС), romanized: Sistema peredachi finansovykh soobscheniy, lit. 'System for Transfer of Financial Messages') is a Russian equivalent of the SWIFT financial transfer system, developed by the Central Bank of Russia.


1. EU sanctions against Russia explained
2. U.S., G7, and E.U. Impose New Sanctions Against Russia
3. War in Ukraine: EU sanctions will 'seriously degrade Russia’s economy' • FRANCE 24 English
(FRANCE 24 English)
4. IN FULL: European Commission President suggests further sanctions on Russia | ABC News
(ABC News (Australia))
5. What sanctions are being imposed on Russia over Ukraine? - BBC News
(BBC News)
6. Ukraine Crisis: Russia sanctions explained
(Sky News)

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