The Circuit of Culture as a generative tool of contemporary analysis: Examining the construction of an education commodity (2022)

Contemporary studies in the field of education cannot afford to neglect the ever present interrelationships between power and politics, economics and consumption, representation and identity. In studying a recent cultural phenomenon in government schools, it became clear that a methodological tool that made sense of these interlinked processes was required. The Circuit of Culture (the Circuit) was refined as a tool of cultural analysis by British cultural theorists in the late 1990s. This paper will provide a brief history of the Circuit, some of its applications and critique, and an overview of the way the Circuit has been utilised to explore a topical cultural phenomenon involving the commodification of international student programs in Australian government schools (Leve, 2011). This study draws on the Circuit to open the way for an exploration of the multiple interrelated processes involved in the construction and management of an education commodity. The Circuit emphasizes the moments of production, representation, consumption, regulation and identity, and the interrelated articulations of these moments. It is found to be a useful and flexible tool for exploring the contemporary significance of, and possibilities for, the increasingly complex multiple modes and relationships of each of these significant moments in the construction and maintenance of an education commodity.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAARE 2012 Conference Proceedings & Program
EditorsJan Wright
Place of PublicationSydney NSW Australia
PublisherAustralian Association for Research in Education
Pages1 - 12
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2012
EventInternational Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education 2012 - University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Duration: 2 Dec 20126 Dec 2012
ConferenceInternational Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education 2012
Abbreviated titleAARE 2012
Country/TerritoryAustralia
CitySydney
Period2/12/126/12/12
OtherThe 2012 Annual Conference was a joint conference of AARE and APERA, incorporating a WERA Focal Meeting.
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Leve, A. M. (2012). The Circuit of Culture as a generative tool of contemporary analysis: Examining the construction of an education commodity. In J. Wright (Ed.), AARE 2012 Conference Proceedings & Program (pp. 1 - 12). Australian Association for Research in Education.

(Video) PRACTICE: Outside In | Inside Out

Leve, Annabelle Marian. / The Circuit of Culture as a generative tool of contemporary analysis: Examining the construction of an education commodity. AARE 2012 Conference Proceedings & Program. editor / Jan Wright. Sydney NSW Australia : Australian Association for Research in Education, 2012. pp. 1 - 12

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Leve, AM 2012, The Circuit of Culture as a generative tool of contemporary analysis: Examining the construction of an education commodity. in J Wright (ed.), AARE 2012 Conference Proceedings & Program. Australian Association for Research in Education, Sydney NSW Australia, pp. 1 - 12, International Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education 2012, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 2/12/12.

The Circuit of Culture as a generative tool of contemporary analysis: Examining the construction of an education commodity. / Leve, Annabelle Marian.

AARE 2012 Conference Proceedings & Program. ed. / Jan Wright. Sydney NSW Australia : Australian Association for Research in Education, 2012. p. 1 - 12.

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(Video) PARSE Dialogue on Fiction and Finance

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(Video) Juan Herrera: "Geographies of Activism: Cartographic Memory and Community Practices of Care"

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(Video) Collapse & Reconfiguration I & II: Introduction to Alt-Woke Praxis

Leve AM. The Circuit of Culture as a generative tool of contemporary analysis: Examining the construction of an education commodity. In Wright J, editor, AARE 2012 Conference Proceedings & Program. Sydney NSW Australia: Australian Association for Research in Education. 2012. p. 1 - 12

FAQs

What is the circuit of culture concept? ›

The Circuit of Culture incorporates the interrelated elements of representation, production, identity, regulation and consumption as processes through which cultural phenomena may be analysed (du Gay, et al., 1997).

Who came up with the circuit of culture? ›

We realized that the heuristic device adopted by those authors had something in common with another one, the “circuit of culture” proposed by Paul Du Gay et Al. in Doing Cultural Studies.

What is cultural studies anyway analysis? ›

Cultural studies concern with whole societies (or broader social formations) and how they move. It looks at social processes from another complementary point of view. To abstract, describe, and reconstitute in concrete studies forms through which human beings live, become conscious, sustain themselves subjectively.

What is representation Stuart Hall? ›

According to Hall (2005: 18-20), representation is the ability to describe or imagine. Representation is important because culture is always formed through meaning and language, in this case, language is a symbolic form or a form of representation.

What is popular culture Fiske? ›

Fiske differentiates between mass culture – the cultural "products" put out by an industrialized, capitalist society – and popular culture – the ways in which people use, abuse, and subvert these products to create their own meanings and messages.

What is popular culture as other? ›

Popular culture is the set of practices, beliefs, and objects that embody the most broadly shared meanings of a social system. It includes media objects, entertainment and leisure, fashion and trends, and linguistic conventions, among other things.

What is Technoculture and risk theory? ›

Risk theory reflects on the psycho-social impact of techno-culture where cultural responses to new devices are based upon awareness that they create new risk. So, we think what the solution of this problem is. But there is no any solution.

What is the importance of Cultural Studies? ›

The Cultural Studies major helps you understand the complexity of everyday life and the way that habits, texts, objects and beliefs are socially patterned and laden with values and meaning. It will provide you with a range of tools to analyse how cultural practices and meanings are produced, circulated and exchanged.

Why is the study of culture important? ›

In addition to its intrinsic value, culture provides important social and economic benefits. With improved learning and health, increased tolerance, and opportunities to come together with others, culture enhances our quality of life and increases overall well-being for both individuals and communities.

What are the key concepts of Cultural Studies? ›

Key Concepts in Cultural Studies–Representation, materialism, Non-reductionism, Articulation, Power, Popular Culture, Texts and Readers, subjectivity and Identity.

How do you apply Stuart Hall representation theory? ›

Stuart Hall's Representation Theory - Media Studies - YouTube

What is representation PDF? ›

A representation is a visual, written, or audio. depiction of something or someone. This term also. refers broadly to what images and texts mean, the. meanings that they potentially convey, and how they.

How does Hall's theory modify the basic communication model? ›

Hall's appropriation of a Marxist vocabulary allows him to replace the linearity of traditional models of communication with a circuit. In this circuit the 'sender' has become a 'producer' and the 'receiver' a 'consumer'.

What is the meaning of cultural studies? ›

Cultural Studies is an interdisciplinary field, drawing on theories and practices from a range of humanities and social sciences disciplines, that seeks to investigate the ways in which cultures produce and are produced.

How do you do cultural analysis? ›

Write an introduction for your cultural analysis that sets a tantalizing stage for the paper. Provide a brief overview of the culture you have chosen to profile and then segue to your theme. Place the theme in context by explaining what it is that makes it such a profoundly important part of the culture.

What is an example of cultural studies? ›

We take a definitive view of what constitutes a properly Cultural Studies approach as we study, for example, the dialectical relationships among media and new media, social institutions such as gender and race, and the class character of capitalist society.

What are the five features of cultural studies? ›

Culture has five basic characteristics: It is learned, shared, based on symbols, integrated, and dynamic.
...
All cultures share these basic features.
  • Culture is learned. ...
  • Culture is shared. ...
  • Culture is based on symbols. ...
  • Culture is integrated. ...
  • Culture is dynamic.

The Circuit of Culture (the Circuit) was created as a tool of cultural analysis, initially by members of the British Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS), and later developed as a conceptual basis to the 1997 Culture, .. The latter period of Hall's published work (as Culture, editor and writer with the Open University) is published in a form that is introductory, accessible and inspiring, as well as clearly articulating many aspects of his earlier work which taken together makes it a valuable ongoing source of inspiration for researchers interested in the construction and management of cultural phenomena, commoditisation and meaning making.. (du As a way of addressing these questions, the Circuit of Culture was developed which diagrammatically represents the processes through which meanings are made and shared within and between cultures i .. This notion of the importance of the interrelationships between various moments within the circuit ) forms the basis of a comprehensive and rigorous approach to the analysis of cultural forms and processes as represented in the later model of the Circuit of Culture.. This later model ( , developed by the Open University cultural studies team for their Culture, Media and Identities series of publications iv , adapts the basic idea of the articulation of levels of practice to the question of economy and cultural meaning which is produced and embedded at each level of the cultural circuit.. Lived cultures/social relations/identity The five interrelated processes implicated in the production and circulation of meaning through language thereby form a useful framework to consider cultural meanings of commodities holistically.. A number of commentators (e.g. critique the determination of culture as suggested by the Circuit of Culture, and instead privilege the circular journey of the commodity itself, rather than culture.. The broader cultural context of this study is that of a conservatively governed and neoliberally inclined culture which has facilitated the processes in which education has become a valued commodity that can be traded internationally, and it is therefore clear that each element represented in the Circuit of Culture is worthy of further comprehensive study.. The following overview of the nodes, or articulated moments of the Circuit of Culture vi is intended to initiate the process of analysis by aligning these moments with some of the constructive processes implicated in the development of the international student phenomenon, or commodity, being investigated in this study.. Stuart Hall's published work with the Open University cultural studies team in the 1990s constitutes a particularly useful understanding of representational practices that articulates particular ways of understanding how representation crucially constructs and is constructed by the world around us.. Through articulation with the other key moments of the cultural circuit, the production of the international education phenomenon as a marketable commodity does not simply begin with production and end with consumption -not a beginning and an end but a continual process of mutually constitutive 'meaning making and meaning taking' .. In addressing an important theoretical aim of the study regarding the production of meaning, the Circuit of Culture suggests that meanings are produced at several different sites and circulated through several different processes and practices.. The Circuit of Culture incorporates the interrelated elements of representation, production, identity, regulation and consumption as processes through which cultural phenomena may be analysed (du .

Schatzki & E. Shove (Eds.. ), The Nexus of Practices: Connections, Constellations, Practitioners (1st ed.). The Nexus of Practices: Connections, Constellations, Practitioners (1st ed.).. Products and Practices: Selected Concepts from Science and Technology Studies and from Social Theories of Consumption and Practice.. Schatzki & E. Shove (Eds.. ), The Nexus of Practices: Connections, Constellations, Practitioners (1st ed.). Schatzki & E. Shove (Eds.. Schatzki & E. Shove (Eds.. Schatzki & E. Shove (Eds.

Photography appeared as a new technology that, by almost magical means, allowed us to document the world in a new way and to share these frozen moments of a lived experience with people who had not been present.. We must look at social photography as a cultural practice , particularly as a way of seeing, communicating and learning.. As a visual discourse, social photographs are a medium for expressing feelings, ideas, and experiences at the moment, and the means are sometimes more important than the specific purpose of a particular image.. From this perspective, the growth of a more ephemeral photograph can simultaneously act as a device that re-establishes the importance of more special and permanent photographs and also as a symbol of their own photographic disposability (Jurgenson, 2019, p.51).. : Technology, the University, and Cultural Studies .. The social photo : On photography and social media .. On Photography .

"The circuit of culture" er en modell som viser hvordan kulturell meningsskaping er en prosess som pågår mange steder og med mange aktører.. Vi skal gå nærmere inn på de ulike punktene i kretsløpet og undersøke bunad som kulturuttrykk som et eksempel på hvordan modellen kan brukes i praksis.. På grunn av prisforskjellene kan det også være forskjeller mellom de som kjøper norskprodusert bunad, og de som kjøper bunad sydd i utlandet.. Den norske forfatteren Camara Lundestad Joof forteller om hvordan hun som seksåring opplevde å bli skjelt ut av eldre kvinner for å gå med nordlandsbunaden som hun hadde arvet: "Og ho fortel at eg har ingenting i den bunaden å gjere.. Dette punktet handler om å undersøke formelle og uformelle reguleringer fra myndigheter og andre instanser som påvirker uttrykket eller produktet, som påbud eller forbud i lover, regler og normer.. Hvordan reguleres bunaden?Ulike nemnder og fagråd har gitt anbefalinger og veiledninger rundt utforminga av bunader, med vekt på vern og tilknytning til tradisjoner og historisk kunnskap.. Bunad- og folkedraktrådet har i sine vedtekter at de skal "fremme, verne og vidareføre bruk og tilverking av bunader og folkedrakter i Noreg som eit uttrykk for kulturell identitet" (Norsk institutt for bunad og folkedrakt, u.. Målet med modellen er å vise hvordan kulturell meningsproduksjon er en kompleks prosess som foregår på mange steder, med mange aktører, og at disse har innflytelse på hverandre.. Det er også rom for å vise at mottakerne av et uttrykk kan tolke og bruke det på svært mange ulike måter, og ikke minst hvordan uttrykket påvirker hvordan mottakerne ser på seg selv og andre.. Representasjonen i selve bunaden som uttrykk kan tolkes ut fra den felles meningsskapinga som er flettet inn i bunaden som bærer av tradisjon og norsk identitet.

Contemporary scholars attuned to matters of culture and social reproduction tend to explore the content of cultural works and practices, examining representations of socially reproductive labor, focusing on the persistence of capitalism’s social reproduction system.. Next, I put Denning’s labor theory of culture into conversation with contemporary Marxist feminist work in SRT and Marx’s own writings on labor to construct a systematic account of culture’s socially reproductive function within capitalism, detailing at a high level of abstraction the synthesis and simultaneity of social and societal reproduction and the possibilities of political contestation contained therein.. Culture’s socially reproductive function is not imminent to a given cultural form, but dependent upon social relations that generate “social needs” “culture” responds to.. In satisfying “social needs and social pleasures,” cultural activity contributes to labor-power’s reproduction and thus workers’ ability to move through Bhattacharya’s wage labor circuit, which itself contributes to society’s reproduction: consuming cultural commodities reproduces capitalism and the use of those commodities helps generate the labor-power on which capitalism depends.. Beyond the direct control of the state, formerly paid cultural labors are increasingly becoming unremunerated via institutional dependencies on internships and volunteering, what Leigh Claire La Berge calls “decommodified labor.” These can be read as assaults on social reproduction insofar as they undermine material support for labor-power sustaining cultural activity, part of neoliberalism’s assault on social reproduction in general.

YouTube as a New Culture in Indonesia : The Construction of Gender Role in the Lens of the Circuit of Culture. First, Lange's research entitles Publicly Private and Privately Public: Social Networking on YouTube, published by Springer in 2019.. Cultural studies enable a researcher to see the meaning of cultural practices through language.. A cultural studies approach provides a lens to understand the meaning of cultural practice as content creators share it on YouTube.. Moreover, the circuit of culture emphasizes the production, representation, consumption, regulation, and identity to understand the meaning of cultural practices and to represent the processes by which meaning is constructed within cultures (Hall, 1997).. The circuit emphasizes the production, representation, consumption, regulation, and identity to understand the meaning of cultural practices and to represent the processes by which meaning is constructed within cultures (Hall, 1997).. The production within this study means the cultural practice which the content creator presents on her YouTube channel.. The exploration of the circuit of culture (regulation, production, and consumption) of the YouTube video brings the representation of Indonesian Muslim women as the content creator presents it on her YouTube channel.

16, 129–34, ed.. La infuencia de la cultura española en la moda, 29–39, Madrid: Museo del Traje.. La infuencia de la cultura española en la moda, 21–7, Madrid: Museo del Traje.. (2002), Fashioning the Body Politic.. ), Fashioning the Body Politic.. ), Te Right to Dress.. Photography is both an art and an industry.. ), Fashion Cultures.. (eds.. Spanish fashion.. “El Museu” (2018), El Museu Virtual de la Moda de Catalunya.

Routledge Environmental Humanities Series editors: Iain McCalman and Libby Robin Editorial Board Christina Alt, St Andrews University, UK Alison Bashford, University of Cambridge, UK Peter Coates, University of Bristol, UK Thom van Dooren, University of New South Wales, Australia Georgina Endfield, University of Nottingham, UK Jodi Frawley, University of Sydney, Australia Andrea Gaynor, The University of Western Australia, Australia Tom Lynch, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA Jennifer Newell, American Museum of Natural History, New York, US Simon Pooley, Imperial College London, UK Sandra Swart, Stellenbosch University, South Africa Ann Waltner, University of Minnesota, US Paul Warde, University of East Anglia, UK Jessica Weir, University of Western Sydney, Australia International Advisory Board William Beinart, University of Oxford, UK Sarah Buie, Clark University, USA Jane Carruthers, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa Dipesh Chakrabarty, University of Chicago, USA Paul Holm, Trinity College, Dublin, Republic of Ireland Shen Hou, Renmin University of China, Beijing Rob Nixon, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA Pauline Phemister, Institute of Advanced Studies in the Humanities, University of Edinburgh, UK Deborah Bird Rose, University of New South Wales, Australia Sverker Sorlin, KTH Environmental Humanities Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden Helmuth Trischler, Deutsches Museum, Munich and Co-Director, Rachel Carson Centre, LMU Munich University, Germany Mary Evelyn Tucker, Yale University, USA Kirsten Wehner, Head Curator, People and the Environment, National Museum of Australia The Routledge Environmental Humanities series is an original and inspiring venture recognising that today’s world agricultural and water crises, ocean pollution and resource depletion, global warming from greenhouse gases, urban sprawl, overpopulation, food insecurity and environmental justice are all crises of culture.. Here Bruce Clarke’s description of global ecology – which stems from a tradition of systems theory – combines biological systems with the emergent metabiotic systems which partly shape them: ‘organizations of consciousness and communication’ which have emerged from the ‘evolution (or Gaian proliferation) of living systems’ (2012: 59, 75).7 One of the more significant aspects of the systems theory approach, which helps establish the theoretical backdrop of my study, is its reorientation ‘from interest in design and control to an interest in autonomy and environmental sensitivity, from planning to evolution’ (Luhmann, 1995: 10).. Related tensions emerge in Greg Garrard and Susanna Lidström’s recent positing of a critical distinction between what they call ‘ecophenomenological’ poetry which seeks ‘to heighten individual readers’ awareness of their natural surroundings’ (their example is Ted Hughes) and what they define as ‘“environmental poetry,” that tries to grapple with the changing relationship between human societies and natural environments’.. This increased level of awareness about the complex relationships between human and non-human at different scales (including the non-human within the human) suggests, as Bergthaller puts it, ‘the patent absurdity of lamenting an abstract alienation from nature when human beings are everywhere and ineluctably enmeshed in material processes that elude human mastery in their irreducible multiplicity, unpredictability and sheer generative excess’ (2014: 38).9 In the Anthropocene humans become a global geophysical force because of the scale effects of repeating even quotidian actions which seem insignificant in themselves (driving to school, drinking tea, spraying RoundupTM weedkiller) by the million and billion.10 The cumulative effect of these actions may have a planetary impact.. However, I am not primarily concerned with whether systems theory offers a fertile approach to poetry, but rather why poetry might be particularly useful in thinking about the biological, ecological and social systems important to the Anthropocene – not least in its capacity to foreground, interrogate and mutate what Kaufman calls the ‘status-quo concepts’ determined by different social systems.17 If Bergthaller is right that ecocriticism can usefully ‘observe how environmentalism (or any other organization or social system) observes’, then on a comparable note it is worth thinking about how poetry demands a focused and circular thinking.. Dharker, Imitaz 29 dialectics 186, 190; negative 158, 161–2 dialectric 190 Diamond, Cora 79, 81, 85 différance 23 difficulty 159, 186–8 Dillard, Annie 20 disaster capitalism 140 disciplines 26, 55 DNA 33, 149–50, 164, 167–8, 170, 172–3 Dobran, Ryan 158, 160 Dorn, Ed 162, 167–72, 176 Bean News 169–70 ‘Dear Flabbey’ 171–2 Gunslinger 170 dorsality 66 dramatic irony 112 dream 67, 167–8 drosophila 173, 176 Dublin 119 Duffy, Carol Ann 29 Dutch Empire 110–11 dwelling 22–3, 142–3, 208–9 Earley, Christopher 190 Earthrise 178–9 ecocriticism 8–9, 19–27, 32–4, 55, 201, 204; Hughes and 11–12, 97, 99; liberalism and 41–3 Ecocriticism Reader, The 21 ecofeminism 30, 37 ecological crisis 75–6 ecology 7–10, 23–4, 92–3, 197–200, 202–5; Bateson 47–9; of culture/ communication 46–54; dark 25; Mahon’s 117, 128–35, 139; poetry and 55–7; Prynne and 162, 166 ecomimesis 24–5 economics 12, 202, 210; Mahon and 106, 118, 127, 134, 140–1; Prynne and 154, 156, 158, 161, 166, 186 ecophenomenological poetry 30–1 ecopoetics 31, 37, 55–6; categories 36; not ecopoetry 35 ecopoetics (journal) 35, 55, 57 ecopoetry 21, 29–30, 55 ecotourism 42 ekphrasis 110 Elder, John 107 Eltringham, Dan 181 embodiment 50, 66, 70, 80–1, 97, see also body. Iron Woman, The 95, 99–100, 199 Lupercal 67 ‘Myth and Education’ 71–2, 87 Orghast 70 ‘Pike’ 67 ‘Relic’ 67–8 ‘Revenge Fable’ 91 ‘Six Young Men’ 84–5 ‘Snake Hymn’ 88–90 ‘Song for a Phallus’ 88 Tales from Ovid 65–6, 97, 199 ‘Thrushes’ 82 human 65–7, 95, 198–9, 206; landscape and 153; violence 80–2, 84 Human Genome Project 177 humanism 39–40, 114, 203 humanities 26, 41 humility 21 Hutcheon, Linda 111, 124–5 Huxley, Thomas 1–2, 4, 7–8, 211 Descent of Man 2 hydrocarbons 181–2, 184–5, 190–1 hyperawareness 44 Icarus 46 immune system 53 imperialism 151–3; Dutch 110–11 India 140–1 individual 41, 202–3; responsibility 135 individualism 123 Industrial Revolution 5 information 14–15, 119, 149–50 information theory 160, 162–9, 179, 184 intentionality 171–2, 184, 187, see also authorial intention interconnectivity 32, 82, 117 interdisciplinarity 52, 78 International Commission on Stratigraphy 5–6 internationalism 107, 129 interregnum 123–4, 139, 144 Inwood, Michael 38 Iraq 181 Ireland 111, 141 Irish poetry 22–3, 26–31, 36, 106–7 Irish Times 118 irony 12, 108–9, 111–16, 139–44, 201; of Gaia 128–9; nostalgia and 124–7; as tactic/symptom 122–3 irrigation 154 ISLE 20 Jacques, Zoe 86, 99 Jakobson, Roman 162. Index 221 Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane 176 Object-Orientated Ontology (OOO) 33, 204 observation (systems theory) 57; second order 47, 96 Observer, The 85 oikos 19–20, 23, 31, 166, 179, 208–11 oil 183; prospecting 190–1 Oilfield Review 190 Olson, Charles 50, 148, 178 opportunity society 140 organic food 140 organic form 9–10 organicism 48–9 O’Sullivan, Maggie 36 Oswald, Alice 23, 27–9, 31 Dart 28–9 Out of the Earth 107 Ovid 65, 95, 109, 199 Metamorphoses 95 Owen, Wilfred 85–6 pain 80–1 Pandora 173, 175–6 Paraquat 180 parasitism 167–8 Paris Review 113, 127 Parker, Michael 142–3 Pastoral/post-pastoral 27–8, 56, 125 Patterson, Ian 181 Paulin, Tom 109 performativity 172 Perril, Simon 148 pessimism 43, 129, 203 pharmaceuticals 176–7 phenomenology 30–1 Phillips, Dana 23–4 philology 150, 156–7, 159, 161, 163 photography 84–6, 180 Pìetrzak, Wit 150, 158 pink disease 181 Pinkus, Karen 183 place 20–1, 26–7, 107–8, 153 plants 168–71 poetry 2–4, 7–10, 15, 20–4, 26, 198, 204–5, 211; ecology 55–7; Hughes on 86, 94; Hughes’s 10–12; hyperawareness and 43–5; immunising/ adaptive function 71–2; liberalism and 41–2; Mahon on 106, 120; Mahon’s 12–13; Prynne’s poetics 13–15, 148,

To. Fichte neither a real nor a heuristic notion of nature makes sense. since one cannot but perceive always and only oneself: "Es giebt. keine Natur an sich; meine Natur und alle andere Natur, die gesetzt. wird, um die erste zu erklären, ist nur eine besondere Art und. Weise, mich selbst zu erblicken" [There is no nature in and by. itself; my nature and all other nature, that is being posited to. explain the first, is only a special way to perceive myself] (ib.. In a paradoxical ideological construction nature came to be seen as the manifestation of a normality : a threaten ed, humanized and controlled. nature, which is considered to be normal and natural, is opposed to. the threaten ing nature of natural, basically biological,. processes out of human control, which are considered to be abnormal. and unnatural.. Nature which has not been properly naturalized is not. natural enough to be the nature of one's (or Pope's) life, and it can. only be natural provided that its substantial part has been. naturalized, or methodized, as Pope would have it.. If the nature is human. nature, then the question of what is natural, and thus the decision. regarding naturalization becomes obviously political, as to. naturalize also means to give rights of citizenship, and thus to. inhabit a certain territory.. if I myself am not nature, if my natural desires, my whole natural. character, do not belong to myself [... ] then all determination by. nature - whether due to my own natural character or to what is known. as external nature - seems to me a determination by something alien.

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